Scientific Program

Day 1

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • Reverse Pharmacology of Sceletium Tortuosum

    Justus-Liebig-University Giessen
    Germany
    Biography

    Wilfried Dimpfel is Honorary Professor at Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany, since 1983. He is pharmacologist and got his neurophysiological education during 1973-1974 as Max Kade stipend (New York) at the NIH Bethesda from Phil Nelson. Together with Hans-Carlos Hofmann, a physicist and mathematician, he developed quantitative EEG software for research and practice. Wilfried Dimpfel is consultant and CSO at NeuroCode AG, Wetzlar, Germany. He published more than 150 papers in peer-reviewed journals.

    Abstract

    A “reverse pharmacology” approach was started with an extract of Sceletium tortuosum, currently sold as Zembrin® in the USA, Canada, Brazil, Malaysia, and South Africa. It is a proprietary extract of a low-alkaloid cultivated selection of Sceletium tortuosum, and is used by healthy people for enhancing mood, decreasing anxiety and stress and improving cognitive function under stressful situations. As test model the hippocampus slice in vitro was chosen to compare its effects with four of its alkaloid constituents, namely Mesembrine, Mesembrenone, Mesembrenol and Mesembranol. Measurement of the amplitude of population spikes was performed in the presence of single shock stimulation and theta burst stimulation resulting in long term potentiation (LTP). Rats were treated daily for one week with 5 or 10 mg/kg of Zembrin® before the hippocampus was taken out for in vitro analysis. Amplitudes of the population spikes were dose dependently attenuated. Out of four glutamate receptor agonists only Fluorowillardine was completely unable to induce its agonistic action. This points to an AMPA receptor mediated attenuation of hippocampal excitability produced by repetitive dosing of Zembrin®. Superfusing the slices directly with the alkaloids at nanomolar concentrations (3.5 – 35 nM) resulted in a concentration dependent attenuation of population spike amplitudes. However, only Mesembrenol and Mesembranol were able to prevent the action of Fluorowillardine, thus resembling the effect of the whole extract. Comparing now the chemical formula of the alkaloids in terms of a structure activity relationship, the hydroxy group at C6 instead of a carbonyl group in mesembranol seems to be essential for interaction with AMPA dependent transmission. Since attenuation of AMPA mediated transmission has been related to successful adjunctive treatment of epileptic patients, Mesembranol - following the principle and methodology of “reverse pharmacology” - might serve as chemical lead for the development of new drugs for the treatment of epilepsy.

  • Ethnopharmacology and neurodegenerative diseases, past achievements and future expectations

    National Center for Scientific Research CNRS, Institute for Chemistry of Natural Products ICSN
    France
    Biography

    Dr. Jamal Ouazzani completed his PhD in applied microbiology in 1988 from Paris XI University-France and obtained a permanent research position at the National Center for Scientific Research CNRS in 1989 (www.cnrs.fr). Since 2014, he has held the position of CNRS Research Director within the Institute for Chemistry of Natural Compounds (ICSN, www.icsn.cnrs-gif.fr) and leads the ICSN Pilot-Unit (www.pilotunit.com). Dr. J. Ouazzani has an interdisciplinary profile covering fundamental and applied microbiology, natural product chemistry, biochemistry, biocatalysis, bioremediation, innovative biotechnology design, building and implementation. He has been engaged in diverse consulting activities since 1996, for environmental, cosmetic and pharmaceutical companies. He has published more than 62 publications in peer-reviewed journals and has obtained nine patents. The ICSN Pilot Unit benefits from European, regional and national grants in the context of eight collaborative projects, including coordinating the EU-H2020 project TASCMAR (www.tascmar.eu). Dr. Ouazzani collaborates with various companies in the field of ethno-pharmacology, bioactive natural compounds from plants, marine organisms and microorganisms, innovative extraction and bio-resource cultivation technologies.

    Abstract

    Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) cover various pathologies and associated disorders. The most known and disabling are Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease, causing motor disorders and dementia. NDs affect the ageing population and represent one of the most challenging public health issues worldwide. The situation is particularly critical due to the increasing number of patients, the cost of treatment, and the societal impact of day-to-day care and dependence. As an example, around 7 million European citizens suffer from Alzheimer's disease with a total care cost reaching 155 billion euros each year. Besides existing drugs adressing the symptoms rather than the cause, alternative natural solutions based on natural extracts or pure compounds are driving growing interest. This presentation begins with an overview of the current state of the art in the use of natural resources and the products they contain, to combat the potential causes and consequences of NDs. We will then move on to the results we have obtained in the field, by using innovative extraction technologies and controlled biotransformation processes to enhance the effectiveness and the safety of the end products.

  • Rise and fall of Mandragora autumnalis as a medicinal plant

    Haifa University
    Israel
    Abstract

    The earlier evidences for the medicinal uses of Mandragora autumnalis are from Sumer and the Bible. The main uses of the mandrake (sometimes with a combination of other narcotic plants), along the generations, are: aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, sedative, anesthetic, analgesic, emetic and antidote for snakebites. For each use I'll survey: the history and the intensity throughout the history till the present day, the pharmacological background in relation to modern chemical analyses and pros and cons.It is concluded that most of the uses of M. autumnalis, as a medicinal plant, were almost completely abandoned. The reasons for this tendency are: 1. The poisonous and narcotic properties, as well as other uncontrolled side effects of the mandrake. 2. The development of the modern safe and efficient drugs which successfully replaced the traditional uses of the plant. The use of the mandrake an aphrodisiac still exists, maybe due to the deep belief rooted in mythology, religion and history which are hard to de eradicate.

Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants | Ethnoveterinary Medicines |Phytochemical Studies of Plants and Plant Extracts | Pharmacology and Toxicology | Clinical pharmacology | Natural Products Chemistry and Pharmacology | Immunopharmacology | Globalization of Traditional Medicine | Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics |
Chair
Speaker
  • Neuroprotective effect of SNC-1 a biocatalysis processed Ayurvedic plant extract as a promising ethnopharmaceutic treatment for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases
    Speaker
    Guillaume Arcile
    National Center for Scientific Research CNRS, Institute for Chemistry of Natural Products ICSN
    France
    Biography

    Guillaume Arcile is a Assistant Engineer, National Center for Scientific Research CNRS, Institute for Chemistry of Natural Products ICSN, France.

    Abstract

    The three ayurvedic medicinal plants Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis, and Bacopa monnieri, were extracted by high-pressure static extraction using the Zippertex technology. The extracts were mixed to reach quantifiable amounts of active compounds identified by HPLC-MS analysis. The mixture of extracts was incubated with resting cells of the fungus Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159. The fermentation promoted the fluidization of the starting dense mixture, while HPLC monitoring evidenced the disappearance of glucogallin from E. officinalis extract and the concomitant increase in Gallic acid content. While topical exposure of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to the non-fermented extract led to an extensive necrosis, the fermented extract was not toxic and and reduced the CAM vascularization, supporting its antiangiogenic potency. The innocuity of the fermented extract was demonstrated using the in vivo LD50 test, the morphological examination of internal organs of treated rats, as well as the evaluation of blood biomarkers of liver damage (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). The fermented extract SNC-1 was developed as a nutraceutical antiangiogenic treatment of age-related macular degeneration and commercialized in an oral form named Ethnodyne-Visio. Furthermore study showed that SNC-1 (dried from of Ethnodyne-Visio) was able to significantly protect neurons (cortical as well as dopaminergic neurons – in vitro models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases) from different injuries (? amyloid, mitochondrial toxins, glutamate). Additionally, SNC-1 stimulated neurite outgrowth). Interestingly these effects were still observed at low doses and were still efficient when the extract was applied up to 4h after the toxins application. Extensive efforts are dedicated to the identification of the active compound responsible of these effects. Clinical trials are underway to confirm the benefit of SNC-1 for Alzheimer and Parkinson patients.

  • Hypoxic and aerobic culture systems influence activity of selected flavonoids in eukaryotic parasitic organism in vitro an interesting model for pharmacological research
    Speaker
    Gabriela Hrckova
    Institute of Parasitology Slovak Academy of Sciences
    Slovakia
    Biography

    Gabriela Hr?kova graduated from the University of P. J. Šafárik, Faculty of Sciences in Košice, (Slovakia), where she completed Master’s degree in biology. She achieved PhD degree in 1993 at the Institute of Parasitology, Slovak Academy of Sciences and became a staff member. Her present position is principal investigator and Head of laboratory of Experimental Pharmacology at this Institute. Since 1997 she participates in pre-graduate and post graduate education both as supervisor and lecturer at Faculty of Sciences, Šafárik University. Since 2009 she also works for private Pharmaceutical Company (ImmunaPharm) in Slovakia as consultant for molecular and cell biology. Her research has been awarded by grants from the Royal Society of UK, Wellcome Trust London, ÖAD Austria, EU “Synthesis” and by several fellowships. She is author or co-author of over 60 scientific papers, 3 book chapters and one book published in series SpringerBrief, which are indexed in WOS/Scopus. Her background in pharmacology of infectious diseases extends over more than 25 years of research. Main research interests cover the effects of anthelmintic drugs and natural compounds, drug carriers and immunomodulators using in vitro and in vivo experimental settings, as well as interests in mechanisms of host-parasites interactions.

    Abstract

    Larval stage of flatworm, tetrathyridium, has ability of survival and asexual multiplication in a wide range of vertebrate hosts what indicates a high biochemical and physiological potential for adaptation. We recently developed axenic long-term in vitro cultivation systems of larvae under both hypoxic and aerobic conditions, representing the unique eukaryotic model for pharmacological and molecular studies. This in vitro system allowed us to study the dose- and time-dependent effects of various natural compounds on multiple biochemical and molecular pathways in larvae. We have focussed on flavonolignans (silybin, dehydrosilybin and silychristin) prepared from silymarin, the main component of herb Silybum marrianum and two other flavonoids: bergenin and arbutin. Activity of individual compounds on metabolic activity of larvae, which reflects activity of enzymes of complex I and II in mitochondria, was dependent on oxygen tension in culture. Flavonolignans also modulated activity of other enzymes like GST, SOD, enzymes involved in glucose transport, in lipogenesis, cell death and motility, indicating their complex activity on multiple targets in larvae.

  • Essential oil of Citrus lumia Risso: phytochemical profile, antioxidant properties and activity on the central nervous system
    Speaker
    Antonella Smeriglio
    University of Messina
    Italy
    Biography

    Antonella smeriglio is from the University of Messina - Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences Messina. Italy.

    Abstract

    Background: The use of essential oils (EOs) is known since long time in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various oxidative stress-related disorders and is further increased recently for their neuroprotective and anti-aging potential as well as for reducing anxiety and stress. Purpose: to evaluate, for the first time, the chemical composition of Citrus lumia Risso EO and its antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase as well as neuroactive properties by cell-free and cell-based assays. Citrus lumia Risso is one of the oldest cultivated limettes in Sicily, Mediterranean Europe and North Africa by which distinguished for the fruit shape and mainly for the sweet, no-acidic juice. Methods: The distribution and morphology of oil glands in the fruit peel were analysed microscopically, by SEM. A phytochemical profile elucidation, by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis, an in vitro evaluation of antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties of the EO, using different in vitro methods (Folin-ciocalteu, DPPH, TEAC, FRAP, Fe2+-chelating capacity, ORAC and ?-carotene bleaching assays) as well as anti-cholinesterase activity were carried out. The impact on the spontaneous electrical activity of rat neuronal networks by means of microelectrode array (MEA)-based system, was evaluated. Results: The EO has shown strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, particularly in hydrogen atom transfer based assays (?-carotene bleaching and ORAC assay, IC50 22 ?g/mL and 46 ?g/mL, respectively), that can be attributed to the high content of monoterpene and monoterpene derivatives, especially d-limonene (48.905%), and linalool (18.245%). Furthermore, has shown an interesting anti-acetylcholinesterase activity (IC50 258.25 ?g/mL). Data from MTT analysis indicate that the cytotoxicity of OE, evaluated on L929 mouse fibroblasts, is very low, with an IC50 higher than 500 ug/mL at 48h. Rat neuronal networks subjected to EO showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity. Conclusions: Results indicate that this EO could be an important source of natural antioxidants potentially useful in the detoxification mechanisms of the organism, suggesting an important preventive role in the onset of oxidative stress-related pathologies.

  • Searching for drugs from Vietnamese ethno-medicine plants
    Speaker
    Hoang Le Tuan Anh
    Mientrung Institute for Scientific Research
    Vietnam
    Biography

    Hoang Le Tuan Anh is from Mientrung Institute for Scientific Research, Vietnam.

    Abstract

    Vietnam is easternmost country in Southeast Asia which the climate change considerably from place to place cause of differences in latitude. There are two World Natural Heritage Sites (Halong Bay and Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park) six biosphere reverses (Can Gio Mangrove Forest, Cat Tien, Cat Ba, Kien Giang, the Red River Delta and Western Nghe An) in Vietnam. We are one of 25 countries possess a uniquely high level of Biodiversity. Vietnam is hometown to an estimated 12,000 species of high-value plants; approximately 3,780 (~ 36%) medicinal plants; and account for approximately 11% of the 35,000 species of medicinal plants known worldwide. There are 54 ethnic groups in Vietnam with their own characters (language, lifestyle and cultural heritage). That why many ethno-medicine plants are not yet known and are used only by ethnic groups. Until now, hundreds of Vietnamese medicinal plants were studied such as Physalis angulata, Cleistanthus indochinensis, Ophiopogon japonicus, Garnoderma lucidum, Camellia bugiamapensis, Momordica charantia, Hedychium coronarium, Annona glabra, Callisia fragrans, Eurycoma longifolia, Cudrania tricuspidata, Tacca species, Mallotus species, Glochidion species, Solanum species, Trichosanthes species, etc. A lot of potential compounds were discovered from Vietnamese medicinal plants such as physalin B, D, F, G; malloapelta B, peaonol, cleistantoxin, desgalactotigonin, berberin, rotundin, rutin, artemisinin, artesunat etc. The opportunities to discover new drugs from Vietnamese ethno-medicine plants with the collaborator worldwide so big.

  • A Review of ethnopharmacological research of some Cameroonian medicinal plants
    Speaker
    Rosalie Anne Ngono Ngane
    University of Douala
    Cameroon
    Biography

    Rosalie Anne Ngono Ngane is from University of Douala.

    Abstract

    The use of herbal medicines as complements or alternatives to modern medicines has been on the increate. This review summarizes research carried out on some Cameroonian medicinal plants between 2007 and 2017 by our research team at the Faculty of Science of the University of Douala in collaboration with some national and international scientists. Medicinal plants are resources of traditional medicines and modern medicine derived from plants. This study was designed to outline some biologic activities of various medicinal plants extracts used by the Cameroonians’ and central Africa’s peoples. Several medicinal plants growing in Cameroon were identified as having pharmacological properties. These plants species which include Crassocephalum bauchiense, Dichaentanthera africana, Harungana madagascariensis, Milletia conraui, Nauclea latifolia, Pecedanum zenkeri, Ptelopsis hylodendron, Schefflera barteri, Strychnos icaja, Strychnos malacoclados with healing properties are listed alongside with their traditional use and a summary of the scientific research achieved are given. They were tested for their in vitro or in vivo biological activity by standard protocols. These ten plants have shown antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-Herpes simplex virus and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Natural products (diterpenoids, alkaloids and flavone) have been identified from five of them. The results suggest that the plants extracts could be a promising rough material for the development of new and more effective modern drugs. Based on these results, drugs from Crassocephalum were developed but no patent is obtained till today. Keywords: Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, ethnopharmacology, Cameroonian phytomedicines

  • Harnessing phytochemicals to protect neuronal and glial cells from oxidative stress
    Speaker
    Anat Elmann
    Agricultural Research Organization
    Israel
    Biography

    Anat Elmann is from the Department of Food Quality and Safety, Agricultural Research Organization,Volcani Center, Israel.

    Abstract

    Oxidative stress and amyloid beta toxicity are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's diseases. We have previously demonstrated that an extract prepared of the plant Achillea fragrantissima (Af) protected cultured brain astrocytes from oxidative stress-induced cell death and down regulated microglial activation. Using activity guided fractionation, we have purified from Af an active flavonoid named 3,5,4-trihydroxy-6,7,3-trimethoxyflavone (TTF). TTF protected cultured astrocytes from H2O2 –induced cell death via interference with cell signaling (inhibition of SAPK/JNK, ERK 1/2, and MEK1 phosphorylation) and by reducing the levels of oxidative stress-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The mechanism of the protective effect of TTF against H2O2-cytotoxicity could not be attributed to a direct H2O2 scavenging but rather to the scavenging of free radicals as was shown in cell free systems. In addition, TTF protected cultured neuronal cells from amyloid beta cytotoxicity via interference with cell signaling events and by reducing the amyloid beta - induced levels of intracellular ROS. Moreover, TTF exhibited anti-inflammatory activities and inhibited the LPS-elicited secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1beta from microglial cells. Our results suggest that TTF might be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease as well as other neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and amyloid beta toxicity are part of the pathophysiology.

  • Immune Cell Type or Signaling-Specific Effects of Four Candidate Phytomedicines for Cancerous and Inflammatory Diseases
    Speaker
    Ning-Sung Yang
    Agricultural Biotechnology Research Centre
    Taiwan
    Biography

    Dr. Ning-Sung Yang is a Distinguished Professor and Distinguished Research Fellow of Academia Sinica and the associated universities in Taipei, Taiwan. He has helped the development of gene gun technology and pioneered its application to mammalian transgene experimental systems and gene therapy approaches. After thirty years of a research career in USA, Dr. Yang established the Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center in Academia Sinica, Taipei. He was elected in 2006 as a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, USA). He has published more than 160 research papers, and obtained 14 USA patents.

    Abstract

    In our recent studies, we showed that many phytochemicals or their derivatives can confer diverse pharmacological activities in preventing tumor metastasis (See References). These phytochemical activities regulate the immune system or non-malignant cells in a tissue microenvironment under various in vivo conditions. And these activities cannot be effectively addressed by the conventionally used cell culture systems in vitro. Our current strategy is to initiate our study through a combination of omics approaches and specified in vivo tumor model systems. Specifically, we first make predictions for candidate specific pharmacological activities according to the “omics screening” profile of differential responsive genes, proteins or involved metabolites. Then we make a list of hypothesis in priority sequence. Finally, we detect/evaluate the candidate mechanistic signaling cells/molecules for suppression of well-defined tumor metastasis activity. With this strategy, we have been successful in evaluating several pharmacological effects of nature plant phytochemicals or their derivatives on immune cell systems or the surrounding nonmalignant cells in defined tumor microenvironment. The omics approaches we used to predict and reveal the specific pharmacological activity of phytochemicals or medicinal herbal extracts/fractions, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and the next generation sequencing (NGS) systems. The systematic analysis of the observed data is to “contemplate” the cellular or physiological responses, according to the various pattern changes detected in different response elements. Technically, in our task on pathway and net-working analyses, the overall or big trend/pattern of the different responsive elements or/and their signaling systems is the key for predicting specific pharmacological mechanisms, instead of the “super” inducer or suppressor single gene activities. For instance, the “expression pattern or trend”, rather than the “fold change”, of specific microRNA species is a much more important factor for predicting their suppressive effect on target genes. As a result, the understanding and background knowledge of specific targets or signaling networking pathways of specific disease targets are quite important and need to be carefully reviewed “first” before “searching the omics data” in a totally randomized way. With this approach, whether the expression trend of their downstream genes can fit the proposed hypothesis is also considered as a key factor.

  • An ethnopharmacological evaluation of indigenous plants used by the communities of district Kotli, Azad Jammu Kashmir
    Speaker
    Humaira Shaheen
    Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan
    Pakistan
    Biography

    Humaira Shaheen is from Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Abstract

    Aim of the Study and Ethnopharmacological relevance: District Kotli is a mountainous area ranging from scrub to alpine forests which is sporadically known with reference to ethnopharmacological research. Such studies are mandatory for discovering new crud drugs based on the folk knowledge. This study was aimed to collect knowledge of medicinal plants and folk herbal remedies from the local inhabitants. Materials and methods: In all, 100 local informants including 55 were males and 45 were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire in addition to group discussions and field observations. Different ethnobotanical indices such as Spearmann test, relative frequency of citation (RFC), Relative Importance (RI), Informants Consensus Factor (FIC) and Medicinal Importance (MI) were calculated from the recorded data. Besides, to check the novelty of information, the recorded data was compared with the literature from the recent past. Results: In all, 80 medicinal plants were used in treating 58 diseases/ailments by the indigenous communities. Comparing the knowledge held by men and women, men had much higher knowledge on medicinal plants (Z = -2.8; p < 0.05) and their uses (Z = -0.252; p< 0.005): they reported 14.05 (±10.18) species and 6.12 (±4.13) uses, while women 8.55 (±6.06) species and 5.83 (±3.65) uses. Abdominal pain was the most prevalent problem treated with nine species (7.38%), followed by acute injuries & pain (7 spp., 5.74%) and diabetes (5 spp., 4.10%). The Informants' Consensus Factor (FIC) analysis indicated that among the 19 disease categories used, mouth, ear and eye problems (0.91), skin and related symptoms (0.91), circulatory problems (0.90), allergies (0.90), hair related problems (0.90) and diabetes (0.90) had the highest FIC values. Aerial parts (21spp.) and leaves (20 spp.) were highly utilized for making recipes. The oral application of powder was the leading mode of application (21 spp., 26.25%). Zanthoxylum alatum possessed the highest relative importance (93.75), followed by Adhatoda zeylanica (91.67). Conclusions: The high informant consensus suggests that current use and knowledge of medicinal plants are still strong and local inhabitants have a high dependency on medicinal plants in meeting their primary health care. This knowledge can be exploited in validation of this knowledge for the drug development and pharmacological activities in addition to the conservation and management of these valuable plant resources of this territory. Keywords: Ethnopharmacological research, Local inhabitants, Frequency of Citation, Relative Importance, Informants Consensus Factor, Medicinal Importance.

Day 2

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
  • From Ethnobotany to Mainstream Agriculture: New Crops for Subsistence Farmers in the Tropics

    International Tree Foundation, England
    United Kingdom
    Biography

    Roger Leakey DSc, FRGS has been Director of Research of a CGIAR Centre based in Kenya and responsible for research teams working in four ecological zones of Africa developing agricultural systems for subsistence farmers, and Director of Novel Crops Unit and Professor of Agroecology and Sustainable Development at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. He has produced over 350 research publications, including two recent books on Multifunctional Agriculture. His personal research on the interface of agriculture, horticulture, forestry, ecology, food science and social sciences has focused on the domestication techniques and strategies for ethnobotanically important tree species appropriate for local implementation in rural communities. He is Vice Chair of the International Tree Foundation in UK and Co-convenor of the Agroforestry Alliance for Africa

    Abstract

    Statement of the Problem: Tropical agriculture is both failing local people and the environment with serious impacts on food and nutritional security, poverty, the global well-being of society and the planet. Addressing this problem requires a new mindset that recognizes the need to reverse the Cycle of Land Degradation and Social Deprivation that drives the complex processes that result in very low and declining yields of staple food crops – creating a Yield Gap. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: To achieve this, African smallholder farmers have requested help to diversify their farming systems with new crops that produce the traditionally and culturally-important food and medicinal products that their ancestors used to gather from forests and woodlands. Cultivating these nutritious and ecologically important species producing locally marketable products creates healthier agroecosystems and income generation opportunities; as well as new business possibilities. Over the last 25 years, techniques and strategies to allow a decentralized and participatory approach to the rapid domestication of these ethnobotanically important species have been applied and implemented in over 500 communities in Cameroon. Findings: The results have been very positive and are being increasing adopted and up-scaled; involving some 50 species. 1. Communities can select individual trees with desirable traits from among the 3- to 10-fold intraspecific variation available at the village-level. 2. These species are high amenable to simple, low-technology horticultural techniques for cultivar development that can be implemented at the village level. 3. Participating communities have reported numerous social and economic benefits from the domestication and cultivation of these species: and, in parallel, increased staple crop yields resulting from improved soil fertility and health. Conclusion & Significance: There are great opportunities to develop new tropical crops producing culturally important foods and traditional medicines to transform subsistence agriculture and the lives of local people and benefit the global environment.

  • Lowering of kynurenic acid formation – anti-dementia drugs

    Karl Landsteiner Research Institute for Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology
    Austria
    Biography

    Halina Baran is presently Head of the Karl Landsteiner Research Institute for Neurochemistry, Neuropharmacology, Neurorehabilitation and Pain Treatment Mauer, Lower Austria, From 2005 - 2011 she was the head of Head of the Neurochemical Laboratory Karl Landsteiner Institute Mauer and Head of Neurophysiology, Veterinary Medical University Vienna.

    Abstract

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation and is an antagonist of the glutamate ionotropic excitatory amino acid and of the nicotine cholinergic receptors and its involvement in memory impairment has been suggested. The therapeutic effect of Cerebrolysin treatment of dementia and of brain injury has been proposed because of neurotrophic properties of this compound. Since an increased kynurenine metabolism has been shown in several brain pathologies including dementia we investigated the biochemical properties of Cerebrolysin with respect to KYNA formation in an in vitro study. The activities of the KYNA synthesising enzymes kynurenine aminotransferase I, II and III (KAT I, KAT II, KAT III) in rat liver, and rat and human brain homogenates were analysed in the presence of Cerebrolysin. Data revealed demonstrate the ability of Cerebrolysin to lower KYNA formation in homogenates. We suggest that the anti-dementia effect of Cerebrolysin observed in Alzheimer patients could be due to Cerebrolysin induced reduction of KYNA levels, thus enhancing the cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmissions. D-Cycloserine, anti- mycobacterial drug, known as a partial agonist at the glycine modulatory site of the glutamatergic NMDA receptor, exerts anticonvulsive activities and improves cognitive function. We evaluated the action of D-cycloserine with respect to the biosynthetic machinery of KYNA synthesis. Interestingly, we found that D-cycloserine blockes significantly KATs activities in rat liver and brain homogenates and in the frontal cortex homogenate of human post mortem tissue, as well. These results allowed us to propose that lowering of KYNA content likely due to D- cycloserine inhibition of KATs activities might be involved in the postulated mechanism for D- cycloserine to act as a partial agonist at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. It is reasonable to believe that this mechanism(s) is in part responsible for the improvement of symptoms like dementia, cognition and/or delusion in schizophrenia patients, Alzheimer’s, HIV-1 infected patients or Parkinson’s patients. Finally we evaluated the action of Jerusalem balsam with respect to the biosynthetic machinery of KYNA synthesis. Jerusalem balsam is widely used because of good reputation as a natural remedy. It is a mixture of certain plants, which supposes to have antibacterial and anti-oxidative properties. Jerusalem balsam is used to improve liver and lung diseases, as for example bronchopneumonia. Interestingly, we found that Jerusalem balsam blocks significantly KATs activities, too. Lowering of KYNA synthesis by Jerusalem balsam represents notable biochemical effect since it might influence KYNA levels. Therefore increased KYNA levels observed in stroke patient, in patient with respiration and cardiovascular problem, in neuropsychiatric disorders, in patient infected with HIV-1 and patients with bronchopneumonia could be treating by Jerusalem balsam. We speculate the possible therapeutic application and advantage of the remedy Jerusalem balsam, i.e. mixture of plants and discuss comparing to effect of anti-dementia drugs D-cycloserine and Cerebrolysine.

  • Plants of the Bible: Past, Present and Future

    Haifa University
    Israel
    Abstract

    The Holy Land is located in the cultural continuum between ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. It is logical to assume that the main medicinal plants used were similar throughout this region. The main species were represented in the families Solanaceae and Lamiaceae. However, references to medicinal plants in the bible are uncommon and do not reflect the long-term and regular uses of these plants. While many plants mentioned in the bible have and had medicinal uses most are not mentioned within a pharmacological context within sacred verses. The main medicinal in the bible are hyssop, myrtle, myrrh, Balm of Gilead and mandrake. The first four have other ritual uses. The present day use of the plants will be surveyed to compare them to their ancient applications over the Middle East. It appears that the only plant group that has a pharmacological future, as a potential source of bioactive compounds, is the species complex known as myrrh (Boswellia spp.)

Latest Trends in Ethnopharmacology | Ethnopharmacology of Alkaloids | Ethnoveterinary Medicines | Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry | Applied pharmacology | Cardiovascular Pharmacology |Ethnobotany |Ethnopharmacy |
Speaker
  • From popular medicine knowledge to evidence ethnopharmacolgy efficacy. Can Nature give us the tools to fight human neurodegenerative diseases
    Speaker
    Vincenzo Rispoli
    University of Magna Graecia of Catanzaro
    Italy
    Biography

    Rispoli Vincenzo is the Neurologist Aggregate Professor of Neuropsychopharmacology and Delegate of the Rector for Disability and Associate Editor of Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease,Member of Editorial Board of Journal of Drug Discovery Development and Delivery. Department of Health Sciences, University Magna Græcia of Catanzaro, Building of Biosciences,University Campus “Salvatore Venuta” Viale Europa, Italy.

    Abstract

    From the night of time, Man has always tried to relieve his suffering by turning his attention to Nature and seeking remedies to cure the ills of his body. In recent decades, phytotherapy has been re-evaluated, not only because of the growing number of patients who use it, but, above, all, since numerous preclinical and clinical researches have been able to demonstrate and confirm the pharmacological bases of plant-based treatment, since acquired in the past from traditional medicine in empirical way. Today phytotherapy has become a medical discipline in all aspects, because it applies the method and the rigor of scientific evidence. Here it is addressed the history, current as well as the future perspective of AD treatment by Ethnomedicine, taking into consideration the probable causes and preventive mechanisms together with the treatment methods. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible, slowly progressive neuodegenerative disease of the brain, and it is characterized by memory deficits and progressive cognitive impairment, accompanied by neuropsychiatric changes. It has become the fourth leading cause of death in developed countries. The main symptoms of AD are primarily caused by a cholinergic dysfunction due to degeneration of basal cholinergic forebrain (BCF). in particular, consistent neuronal loss into the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), which produces a reduced cholinergic input to target areas such as cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Pathogenic cause of AD remains incompletely understood. So, currently acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), which decrease the breakdown of the neurotransmitter, has been the main symptomatic therapy for mild to moderate Alzheimer’s patients, approved by FDA. To date, AChEIs are considered the main pharmacological strategy in the palliative approach in the therapy of AD; they undoubtedly, temporarily restore the disrupted cholinergic transmission in brain. Consequently, the search for novel compounds is necessary. In recent times, several chemical and pharmacological studies have searched for new drugs, in an attempt to extract and isolate from plants novel compound or better understand the effects of those already known, in an effort to fight this terrible disease. Conclusions AD is a multi-causal and multi-factorial progressive neurodegenerative disease with complicated pathogenesis. Thus it is likely that multiple drugs or drugs with poly-pharmacological activities will be the best therapeutic approaches to address the diverse pathological aspects of the disease. Anti-cholinesterasic activities, anti-A? aggregation and anti-A?-induced oxidative injury such as anti-NMDA-induced toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity showed by many herbal compounds, encourage their use as potential disease-modifying drugs for neurodegenerative disorders, opening to new insight and future perspectives for a multi-functional phytomedicine. From this point of view, we have to overcome our way to think Ethnomedicine and official medicine opposed each other, or that orthodox medicine is better than traditional medicine, as well as phytotherapeutic remedies as an alternative to synthetic drugs. The two pharmacological approaches are often, and it should always be, complementary; that is, to be able to complement each other. Science and consciousness of physician will depend on the correct integration of. In conclusion, Evidence based pharmacology (EBP) is the conscientious, explicit, judicious and reasonable use of modern, best pharmacotherapeutic evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. EBP must integrate clinical experience and patient values with the best available research information.

  • New compounds from Withania somnifera with neuroprotective activities. Isolation, structure elucidation bioassays and scale-up production
    Speaker
    Géraldine LE GOFF
    National Center for Scientific Research CNRS, Institute for Chemistry of Natural Products ICSN, France
    France
    Abstract

    The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases are increasing worldwide due to extensions in lifespan with more than 2.1 billion people aged 60 and more in 2030. The most representative diseases are Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington’s disease (HD). Available treatments are limited in number and efficacy and extensive efforts are dedicated to alternative herbal therapy. Among various promising plants, Withania somnifera roots and leaves extracts demonstrated large spectrum activities on neural dysfunction (common name Ashwagandha). Based on our previous encouraging results, , , , , our ongoing efforts are dedicated to identify new compounds from Ashwagandha and demonstrate their mechanism of action and their relevance in neuroprotection. Besides the known major constituents, withanolides, withanone and withaferin, now steroidal components were identified and their biological activity investigated.

  • Curcumin Based Possibilities For Targeting Protein Kinase B And Nuclear Factor Kapa B In Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
    Speaker
    Maya Zaharieva
    The "Stephan Angeloff" Institute of Microbiology
    Bulgaria
    Abstract

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is an orphan disease which primarily affect the skin by clonal accumulation of neoplastic T-lymphocytes and is characterized by a 5-year overall survival of 32% of the patients, if the skin is involved and only 7% for extracutaneous involvement. CTCL therapy is challenging, often empiric because of the limited insight into the genetic basis and single drug therapy is usually not applicable. Curcumin is one well-known ethnopharmacological non-toxic drug with limited bioavailability. The objective of our study was to investigate new treatment modalities for targeting CTCL by combining nanoencapsulated curcumin with alkylphosphocholines thus affecting malignant cell proliferation, skin inflammation and related infections. The nanoparticle size and zeta-potential of nano-systems containing curcumin were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy and electrophoretic laser Doppler velocimetry. Curcumin concentration was measured by HPLC. MTT- (ISO 10993-5) and CFU-assays were performed on CTCL cell lines for evaluation of cell viability and clonogenicity. Cell death ELISA, microscopy, Hoechst staining and western blotting were used to monitor hallmarks of apoptosis. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by ISO 20776-1:2006(E). Chou&Thalalai software and response surface analysis of combination effects were used to design the experiments and to estimate drug-drug interactions. The nano-sized curcumin delivery systems were prepared using two copolymeric carriers with diameter less than 200 nm and negative surface charge. Encapsulated curcumin penetrated through the cell membranes of CTCL cells faster than curcumin solubilized in ethanol. Combination effects were evaluated as additive to slight synergistic. We have observed in treated samples induction of apoptosis and modulation of PKB/Akt and related signal proteins. Erufosine has exhibited bacteriostatic activity against Gram-positive bacteria in concentrations ranging from 32 up to 100 µM. Combination of erufosine with nano-sized curcumin has led to bactericidal effect. Taken together, our experimental findings clearly indicated that properly designed combinations of curcumin with alkylphosphocholines may show higher antineoplastic potential than single compounds and could be beneficial for the treatment of CTCL as orphan disease.

  • Antitumor Prperties Of Curcumin Loaded Polymeric Electrospun Mats
    Speaker
    Spiro Mihaylov Konstantinov
    Medical University of Sofia
    Bulgaria
    Abstract

    Malignancies are the second cause for death in humans worldwide. Despite many newly introduced and approved targeted drugs the problem of multidrug resistance and serious side effects remains unsolved and opens the search for effective natural products with fewer side effects. Curcumin is a practically non-toxic compound of plant origin with own antineoplastic and NF-kB inhibitory activities. Curcumin is one of the most popular drugs derived from Ayurveda traditions.We investigated the cytotoxic activity of curcumin loaded electrospun mats in human hepatic and colon carcinoma cell lines (HEP-G2 and HT-29). Disks with 5 mm diameter of the electrospun mats caused nearly 80% inhibition in HT-29 colorectal cells. The efficacy against the HEP-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells was weaker. The matsshowed antibacterial features and were found to be biocompatible with human tissues of different origin. The tested polymeric mats increased the accumulation of curcumin inside of the malignant cells as estimated by fluorescent microscopy. One of the polymeric mats represents fully water soluble form of curcumin that may have distinct pharmacokinetic advantages.Taken together our experimental findings indicate that the non-toxic yellow pigment curcumin after inclusion into electrospun polymeric mats can be used for topical treatment of liver lesions (e.g. colorectal cancer metastases) and these results are promising in terms of further clinical application.

Mail us at

General Queries
ethnopharmacology@alliedconferences.org
Sponsors / Exhibitors
ethnopharmacologymeet@alliedconferences.org
Program Query
ethnopharmacology@alliedmeetings.org
More details about sponsorship:sponsors@alliedacademies.com

Terms and Conditions

Responsibility

Delegates are personally responsible for their belongings at the venue. The Organizers will not be held responsible for any stolen or missing items belonging to Delegates, Speakers or Attendees; due to any reason whatsoever.

Insurance

Registration fees do not include insurance of any kind.

Transportation

Please note that any (or) all transportation and parking is the responsibility of the registrant.

Press/Media

Press permission must be obtained from Allied Academies Conferences Organizing Committee prior to the event. The press will not quote speakers or delegates unless they have obtained their approval in writing. The Allied Academies is an objective third-party nonprofit organization. This conference is not associated with any commercial meeting company.

Requesting an Invitation Letter

For security purposes, letter of invitation will be sent only to those individuals who had registered for the conference. Once your registration is complete, please contact ethnopharmacology@alliedconferences.org to request a personalized letter of invitation.

Regarding refunds, all bank charges will be for the registrants account.

This cancellation policy was last updated on March 20, 2017.

Cancellation, Postponement and Transfer of Registration

All cancellations or modifications of registration must be made in writing to 
ethnopharmacology@alliedconferences.org

Cancellation Policy

If Allied Academies cancels this event for any reason, you will receive a credit for 100% of the registration fee paid. You may use this credit for another Allied Academies event which must occur within one year from the date of cancellation.

Postponement

If Allied Academies postpones an event for any reason and you are unable or unwilling to attend on rescheduled dates, you will receive a credit for 100% of the registration fee paid. You may use this credit for another Allied Academies event which must occur within one year from the date of postponement.

Transfer of registration

All fully paid registrations are transferable to other persons from the same organization, if registered person is unable to attend the event. Transfers must be made by the registered person in writing to ethnopharmacology@alliedconferences.org. Details must be included the full name of replacement person, their title, contact phone number and email address. All other registration details will be assigned to the new person unless otherwise specified.

Registration can be transferred to one conference to another conference of Allied Academies if the person is unable to attend one of conferences.

However, Registration cannot be transferred if it is intimated within 14 days of respective conference.

The transferred registrations will not be eligible for Refund.

Visa Information

Keeping in view of increased security measures, we would like to request all the participants to apply for Visa as soon as possible.

Allied Academies will not directly contact embassies and consulates on behalf of visa applicants. All delegates or invitees should apply for Business Visa only.

Important note for failed visa applications: Visa issues cannot come under the consideration of cancellation policy of Allied Academies, including the inability to obtain a visa.

Refund Policy:

If the registrant is unable to attend, and is not in a position to transfer his/her participation to another person or event, then the following refund arrangements apply:

Keeping in view of advance payments towards Venue, Printing, Shipping, Hotels and other overheads, we had to keep Refund Policy is as following slabs-

  • Before 60 days of the conference: Eligible for Full Refund less $100 service Fee
  • Within 60-30 days of Conference: Eligible for 50% of payment Refund
  • Within 30 days of Conference: Not eligible for Refund
  • E-Poster Payments will not be refunded.

Accommodation Cancellation Policy:

Accommodation Providers (Hotels) have their own cancellation policies, and they generally apply when cancellations are made less than 30 days prior to arrival. Please contact us as soon as possible, if you wish to cancel or amend your accommodation. Allied Academies will advise the cancellation policy of your accommodation provider, prior to cancelling or amending your booking, to ensure you are fully aware of any non-refundable deposits.

Highlights from last year's Convention

Copyright © 2017-2018 Allied Academies, All Rights Reserved.